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Research & Summaries

Tofthagen, C., & McMillan, S. C. (2010). Pain, neuropathic symptoms, and physical and mental well-being in persons with cancer.Cancer Nursing, 33 (6), 436-444. doi:10.1097/NCC.0b013e3181e212b4 Using the above link, repond to the 5 prompts below. Each prompt less than 200 words. Were the data collection methods/procedures appropriate to the research question(s) being studied? Were there the rationales given for the methods being used in the study? (Monica)

Tofthagen, C., & McMillan, S. C. (2010). Pain, neuropathic symptoms, and physical and mental well-being in persons with cancer.Cancer Nursing, 33 (6), 436-444. doi:10.1097/NCC.0b013e3181e212b4 Using the above link, repond to the 5 prompts below. Each prompt less than 200 words. Were the data collection methods/procedures appropriate to the research question(s) being studied? Were there the rationales given for the methods being used in the study? (Monica)
Yes, the methods of data collection were appropriate for the research question seeking to explore the experiences of cancer patients who describe their pain as neuropathic (numbness, tingling, or electric-like) vs not (Tofthagen & McMillan, 2010). From the parent study, it provided three questionnaires with four different instruments to measure pain experience, one at the beginning and two after intervention. This study only included data from the first set of questionnaires, allowing a comparison of the control and intervention groups pre intervention to get a baseline assessment of the patient’s experience of cancer pain. The rationales for the methods were given and described as combining the two groups questionnaires first, and then splitting them into the two subtypes of pain being explored in the research question to make comparisons.
Report the appropriateness of the instruments related to the study purpose. What levels of the measurement were achieved for measuring the study variables? [for example: ordinal level for the CESD etc.] (Marilyn)
The purpose of the study was to explore how cancer patients experienced pain if it included neuropathic pain (numbness, tingling, or electric-like sensations) compared to those whose pain did not include neuropathic pain (Tofthagen & McMillan, 2010). The instruments used to measure pain variables were the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form (MOSS-F), and a revised version of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI-R). Looking at depression from pain, the study also incorporated the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Sacel – Depression (CES-D). The validity and reliability of the MSAS was reported as strong in cancer patients and so that instrument was appropriate for the study’s purpose (Tofthagen & McMillan, 2010; Lobiondo-Wood & Haber, 2022, p. 339). Likewise, the BPI-R, which measured pain severity and interference with ADLs, was strongly reliable in previous studies and so this instrument was appropriate for this study measuring pain. The health-related quality of life (physical and emotional) instrument MOSS-F and the depression scale CES-D were also appropriate to the study of pain and effects on daily living and were found to be widely used and reliable in other studies. The levels of measurement achieved were:
CESD
Ordinal
Range (0-60 Scale)
BPI-R
Ordinal
Range (1-10 scale)
MSAS
Ordinal
Range and Coefficients
MOSS -F
Ordinal
Scales
Tofthagen & McMillan, 2010; LoBiondo-Wood, 2022, p. 283.
What were IVs and DV(s) in the study? Were all variables in the study adequately measured? (Brock)
The IVs are individuals with and without neuropathic pain descriptors (numbness, tingling, and electric-like sensations).
The DVs were pain, pain interference, MSAS symptom differences, health related quality of life and depression symptoms. The DVs were adequately measured, some the instruments included Brief Pain Inventory revise (BPI-R) and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS)
Was there any evidence of potential bias for self-report instrument? If so, what was it? How did it affect the strength and quality of evidence? (Marla) The study conducted had a bias based on ethnic group and religious background. Many of the patients included in this study were white with a religious background of Christianity. This could be due to the geographic location of the study which took place in southwest Florida. The study used a control group to compare the data collected. The mean age from both groups differed by 4 years. The use of four different assessment scales for patients to self-report their pain. The subject matter of this study is challenging since pain is subjective. This topic alone could lead to a bias in patients depending on their background. Based on self reporting of instruments that focused on “numbness, tingling, and electric like ” pain it could provide potential bias of not including other descriptions that could be neuropathic pain (Tofthagen & McMillan, 2010). Then without other descriptions related to use for neuropathic pain, there may have been an underestimation of the amount of patients with this type of pain possibly affecting the strength of the evidence. Did the authors discuss reliability and/or validity of all instruments in the article? Choose two instruments and describe / evaluate the sufficiency of the reliability and validity information provided for the selected instrument. (Shawna)
The instruments used for this study included the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Scale-Depression and a revised version of the Brief Pain Inventory. (Tofthagen & McMillan, 2010) After discussing the instruments used, the authors described them as having a strong reliability or strong internal consistency for all instruments utilized in this study.
Cronbach’s alpha is used to test internal consistency. Alphas above 0.70 are sufficient evidence for supporting internal consistency. ( Lobiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018). Utilizing Cronbach’s alpha to evaluate reliability/validity, the authors identified in the MSAS a reliability of alpha =.83-.92 indicating low risk for bias. In the CES-D Cronbach alphas were .85 for the general public and .85-.91 in persons with cancer, indicating strong reliability. (Tofthagen & McMillan, 2010)
References
Lobiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2022). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. Elsevier. Tofthagen, C. S., & McMillan, S. C. (2010). Pain, neuropathic symptoms, and physical and mental well-being in persons with cancer. Cancer nursing, 33(6), 436–444. https://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0b013e3181e212b4

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Research & Summaries

Discuss a skill that you learned in this course,( Research Methods) and explain how you can apply it to increase success in your career in a real-world scenario.

1.Discuss a skill that you learned in this course,( Research Methods) and explain how you can apply it to increase success in your career in a real-world scenario.
Answer in 5 paragraph 2. This article is a quick read that provides some simple essential research tips. I will keep these in mind moving forward. It reminded me how important being able to research and write in business. I have a friend who works for Amazon. Reply to post within 2-3 sentences
THIS IS NOT SUMMARY, please number your answers.

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Research & Summaries

develop a hypothesis about smiling at others and then develop a corresponding research design.

Overview: For this short paper, you will first develop a hypothesis about smiling at others and then develop a corresponding research design. Once you have established your hypothesis and research design, you will then collect data by smiling at 10 people. Please make sure to adhere to this requirement — DO NOT approach or interact with any of the people that you smile at, as this would constitute human subjects research and require COCE Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. Finally, you will write up your study and conclusions drawn from the research. Please see the following detailed instructions:
Begin by doing a quick literature search around smiling or some sort of smiling behavior. This paper requires at least one peer-reviewed article cited in the introduction.
Next, develop a hypothesis statement. Think about what you have read in your literature search and what you experience in the world around you. What might you want to know about smiling? Make sure to use the “If . . . then . . . ” format.
Then, develop your methodology—what exactly are you going to do to test your hypothesis? Rigorous science starts with and sticks to a plan, so you should think through various challenges and how you might address them if they arise. If you start collecting data and then determine your methodology needs to change, you should discard all data collected to date and begin fresh with the new methodology.
Once you have the hypothesis and methods, you can go in one of two directions. Typically an experiment is carried out over a period of months or even years and the paper is written at the end. However, this is a week-long assignment and you might want to sit down and write the introduction and methods while everything is fresh in your mind.
In whatever order you decide to do them, the remaining two tasks are:
Collect the data. Implement your methodology and see how it goes. Remember, if you are both the person smiling and the person recording the data, you should have some discreet way of recording the information as you go. You do not want people seeing you measuring them or that will change their behavior. You also do not want to count on remembering all the details at the end of the day. Be sure to record some basic observations about who the participant was, as well as what their response was. Again, as stated earlier, DO NOT approach or interact with any of the people that you smile at.
Write the report. Using the standard APA format (see Chapter 2 of the APA manual), write up the experiment. There is an exemplar available for you to review in the Assignment Guidelines and Rubric folder. This is meant to help you. However, you should understand that it is the work of a fellow student. That means that this should be used more for ideas than as an example of the absolute gold standard of classwork.
Be sure your submission includes the following critical elements:
 Introduction: Title pages and abstract (required to be 250 words or less). Provides a research explanation that is appropriate for use based on the evidence in social science research, within APA word limits
● Introduction: Peer-reviewed resources—Include at least one peer-reviewed article for support.
● Introduction: Hypothesis—End with your hypothesis.
● Method: Development/description—Describe what you did. This should be detailed enough that you could hand the paper to a stranger and they could
replicate your study exactly.
● Method: Data collection and analysis—Describe the data collection and analysis procedures in detail.
● Method: Participants—Describe your participants. Descriptions must be an estimation only (such as estimating age). DO NOT approach people asking for
any information.
● Discussion: Supports/rejects—Write up what you found. Include a table or chart illustrating all of the participants’ responses. State if the data supports
or rejects your hypothesis.
● Discussion: Larger conclusion—What larger conclusions could you draw from this data? Are the results generalizable? What are the next steps if
someone wanted to continue this research? (Note that this section is not present in the current exemplar but is still expected for this assignment.)
● Discussion: Limitations—What are the limitations of the study that your reader needs to be aware of?
● References: Another section you are hopefully comfortable with by now. Your references should be in APA style format.
Guidelines for Submission: Your paper must be submitted as Microsoft Word document with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, one-inch margins, running head, title page, and at least three sources cited in APA format. This submission should be approximately 3–5 pages (not counting title or reference page).

Categories
Research & Summaries

Graham, S., & Morales-Chicas, J. (2015). The ethnic context and attitudes toward 9th grade math. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 4(1), 1-32

In this assignment, you will write summaries for 5 peer-reviewed articles.
Summaries should be approximately 8-10 sentences each and capture the following
information:  Purpose of the study and/or the main research questions addressed
 Participant information includes the number of participants as well as key
demographic information like age, gender, and race/ethnicity.  Procedures used to collect the data including how data was collected (i.e. survey,
interview, etc.)  Key study variables and how they were defined/measured
 Main study findings (what relationship was found between the key study variables?)
 Implications of the findings for your research question. Each entry in the annotated bibliography should start with a proper APA citation
followed by the summary. Summaries MUST BE IN YOUR OWN WORDS (NO DIRECT QUOTES) copyingand-pasting will be considered plagiarism. See the example below:
Graham, S., & Morales-Chicas, J. (2015). The ethnic context and attitudes toward 9th grade
math. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 4(1), 1-32.
https://doi.org/10.4471/ijep.2015.01 This study examined relationships between school ethnic context and math course taking
patterns and attitudes for middle school youth. Participants were a part of larger longitudinal
study and included 265 9th graders (55% female) from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds
including Latino (44%), White (27%), Asian (18%), and African American (13%). Students in
the study completed surveys that took approximately 45 minutes. Some of the primary variables
in this study were math level, math attitudes, and same ethnic representation in class. Math level
was measured used students self-reported 9th grade math level (i.e. Algebra, Geometry, etc.)
Math attitudes were measured using a series of questions geared toward understanding student’s
perceived competence, importance, and anxiety in math. Same ethnic representation in class was
measured with a multiple choice asking students to indicate their perception of the number of
same-ethnic peers in their class. Scores ranged from 1=“None or hardly any” to 7= “all or almost
all. Results showed increased perceived same ethnic representation in math class was associated
with increased perceived math competence and belonging, especially when the overall school
ethnic climate was negative. Findings from this study address my research question by providing
evidence of a positive relationship between same ethnic representation in math class and math
attitudes as well as introducing a potentially important covariate—school ethnic climate

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Research & Summaries

Decision Regarding Implementation of Instructional Method (

At this point, you have completed research on an instructional method to implement in your classroom. For this assignment, you will discuss your findings and the accompanying implications. You will also include your decision to follow through with implementing the instructional method. You must cite evidence from your articles that support your decision. The closing paragraph is a reflection of what you have learned regarding researching new ideas or concepts to improve your instructional methods. THE INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD TO COMPLETE THE ASSIGNMENT ON IS COOPERATIVE LEARNING.
The following headings are required:
Brief Description of Instructional Method (minimum one paragraph)
Summary of the Articles that Support the Instructional Method (maximum of two paragraphs)
Summary of the Articles that do not Support the Instructional Method (maximum of two paragraphs)
Decision Regarding Implementation of Instructional Method (minimum of two paragraphs)
How This Assignment has Improved my Research Capabilities to Improve Student Achievement in my Classroom (minimum one paragraph)
You must check your TURITIN plagiarism level to ensure the level is BELOW 15%. Once you upload your assignment, check the plagiarism level. If it is above 15% you must revise the assignment and resubmit prior to the deadline. The instructor will not allow you to revise the assignment due to a high level of plagiarism after the due date of the assignment.

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Research & Summaries

Discuss some of the reasons why we include methodological theory in our research?

Discuss some of the reasons why we include methodological theory in our research? What purpose does it serve? What role do inquiry paradigms play in research? Your posts this week should demonstrate critical reflection upon the assigned readings.
The Routledge International Handbook of the Sociology of Education. Chapters 19, 29, 35 and 37
http://ezproxy.apus.edu
An Introduction to the Philosophy of Methodology
vhttp://ezproxy.apus.edu/login?url=http://methods.s…

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Research & Summaries

Identify a key social determinant of health in the Kingdom as well as a related public health concern. Next, prepare a public service announcement (PSA) in the form of a two-page brochure to educate the public on this concern. R

Identify a key social determinant of health in the Kingdom as well as a related public health concern. Next, prepare a public service announcement (PSA) in the form of a two-page brochure to educate the public on this concern. Remember to address the following:
An explanation of the social determinant including a definition;
How the determinant is related to a public health disease with current statistics;
What you want the public to do with the information-suggest behaviors you want to change.
How your agency can address the concern, including measures and surveillance;
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) – with specific items; and
Whom to contact for additional details (e.g., WHO, Ministry of Health), including an address and phone number.
To see an example, view the following brochure, “Monitoring is a Critical Tobacco Control Activity,” developed by the World Health Organization.
Your brochure should meet the following structural requirements:
A two-page brochure that includes all the elements detailed above.
Follow APA 7th edition and Saudi Electronic University writing standards. Be sure to cite any statistics or other information as appropriate.
You are strongly encouraged to submit all assignments to the Turnitin Originality Check prior to submitting them to your instructor for grading. If you are unsure how to submit an assignment to the Originality Check tool, review the Turnitin Originality Check Student Guide.

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Research & Summaries

Consequences of the excess use of technology.

This research is for a persuasive speech that i will do in the future.
Topic: Consequences of the excess use of technology.
You must have one annotated bibliography for each source, totaling five annotated bibliographies.
Sources must be peer-reviewed.
1 Outline.
Instructions and examples are attached.

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Research & Summaries

find out the difference between Access 2016 vs Access 2019 and 2021 and what Microsoft introduced in Access 2019 and 2021 that was not in Access 2016 and also explain the advantages and disadvantages of both software.”

find out the difference between Access 2016 vs Access 2019 and 2021 and what Microsoft introduced in Access 2019 and 2021 that was not in Access 2016 and also explain the advantages and disadvantages of both software.”
The Assignment Should Be At least 3 to 4 pages. The Assignment Must Be Typed in MS Word or Other Text Format Applications and submit the document here. Use Double Spaces If Needed and Normal Font Size 12pt. You have to explain both software in a comprehensive way and also you have to mention the advantages and disadvantages of using Access 2019 Vs Access 2016 and add pictures to indicate the changes in the software.

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Research & Summaries

Revisit your Big Five personality assessment and the related journal assignment, and consider who you are as a leader. Think of the culture of an organization that you currently work for or have worked for in the past, and describe your role within it based on the organizational culture and your disposition.

It is important to understand yourself as a leader and how you fit into an organization. In this journal assignment, you will discuss your individual experience with organizational culture and how it has impacted communication and leadership within an organization you are familiar with. This could be an organization you currently work for, or one you have worked for in the past. You may wish to revisit the results of your personality assessment from your previous work and discuss how your leadership style connects to the organizational culture you describe here.
Prompt
Revisit your Big Five personality assessment and the related journal assignment, and consider who you are as a leader. Think of the culture of an organization that you currently work for or have worked for in the past, and describe your role within it based on the organizational culture and your disposition.
Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:
Organizational Culture: Describe the organizational culture of the organization of your choice. Consider the following in your response:What is the organization’s mission and vision?
How have you seen the organization’s mission and vision reflected in daily activities such as communication, management approaches, priorities, and so on?
What does the organization value?
Impacts of Culture and Leadership: Describe the impact of culture and leadership on the employees and day-to-day business, providing examples. Consider the following in your response:How did organizational culture play a role in the examples you provided?
In the examples you provided, was the communication or behavior aligned with the culture the organization promotes? Why or why not?
Leadership Style and Personality Traits: Discuss your leadership style and personality traits; focus specifically on how your leadership fits into an organizational culture. Consider the following in your response:What traits make you a strong leader, and how does this connect to the organizational culture you described?
Guidelines for Submission
Your submission should be a 1- to 2-page Word document with 12-point Times New Roman font, double spacing, and one-inch margins. Sources should be cited according to APA style.
Module Four Journal Rubric
CriteriaExemplary (100%)Proficient (85%)Needs Improvement (55%)Not Evident (0%)Value
Organizational CultureExceeds proficiency in an exceptionally clear, insightful, sophisticated, or creative mannerDescribes the organizational culture of the chosen organizationShows progress toward proficiency, but with errors or omissions; areas for improvement may include providing more accurate or detailed descriptions of the organizational cultureDoes not attempt criterion30
Impacts of Culture and LeadershipExceeds proficiency in an exceptionally clear, insightful, sophisticated, or creative mannerDescribes the impact of culture and leadership on the employees and day-to-day business, providing examplesShows progress toward proficiency, but with errors or omissions; areas for improvement may include providing examples that more closely align to or support the impact of culture and leadership, or more accurately describing the impactsDoes not attempt criterion30
Leadership Style and Personality TraitsExceeds proficiency in an exceptionally clear, insightful, sophisticated, or creative mannerDiscusses leadership style and personality traits, focusing specifically on how these fit into an organizational cultureShows progress toward proficiency, but with errors or omissions; areas for improvement may include providing more detail or further explanation to help support ideasDoes not attempt criterion30
Articulation of ResponseExceeds proficiency in an exceptionally clear, insightful, sophisticated, or creative mannerClearly conveys meaning with correct grammar, sentence structure, and spelling, demonstrating an understanding of audience and purposeShows progress toward proficiency, but with errors in grammar, sentence structure, and spelling, negatively impacting readabilitySubmission has critical errors in grammar, sentence structure, and spelling, preventing understanding of ideas5
Citations and AttributionsUses citations for ideas requiring attribution, with few or no minor errorsUses citations for ideas requiring attribution, with consistent minor errorsUses citations for ideas requiring attribution, with major errorsDoes not use citations for ideas requiring attribution5
Total:100%