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The United States underwent dramatic changes in the late nineteenth century, including the development of heavy industry, increased immigration, and urbanization. What were some of the ways these changes effected gender and race/ethnicity? And Reply back to Crystal. Do you agree with her? Why or why not? Concise overview of black women in the suffrage movement and other reform activities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
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A digital exhibit about women activists on the Lower East Side. There are other worthwhile digital exhibits as well as podcasts on the Museum’s website. Even better, visit the museum to more fully experience immigrant life in NYC in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. —-
Crystal: The development of heavy industry along with a great period of immigration had created new gender role changes for women and helped in the process of urbanization. Women at this time were bored of their household duties and wanted to take on jobs outside of the house and in cities where factories and sweatshops were plenty specifically in sewing and textile trades since these occupations were closest to what they have already been taught by their past generations. A lot of working woman were daughters of immigrants and they wanted to work to begin their lives before they would get married and then start to raise their own children. In African American households women were forced to help their husbands with income issues due to African American males having lower wages than those of white males. White women often got the higher paying jobs in the sewing factories, whereas, african american and some other immigrants would be forced into “agricultural work since they were barred by prejudice from higher paying industrial jobs (Ware 61). The harsh conditions in factories led a group of women known as Internation Ladies Garment Workers Union to go on strike and demand less working hours and safer conditions The boost in industrialized jobs helped form cities which then in return helped with urbanization. Women whose families could not afford to own homes settled in tenements within the city with cheaper rents but often at times dirty living conditions which led many to die from disease. Urban women were often more educated than those of women who settled on farms and in rural areas which led to a greater productivity from the “New Women”. I found it interesting that of all the great achievements that urban women helped develop the declining birthrate was that biggest change during this time period.